Head and Neck


In this section, we look at the anatomy of the skull and its parts, learning about each bone of the skull, as well as the main sutures connecting the skull bones.

  • Skull (overview)
  • Parts of the skull
  • Bones of the neurocranium
  • Bones of the viscerocranium
  • Sphenoid bone
  • Frontal bone
  • Temporal bone
  • Petrous part of temporal bone
  • Squamous part of temporal bone
  • Mastoid part of temporal bone
  • Tympanic part of temporal bone
  • Ethmoid bone
  • Occipital bone
  • Parietal bone
  • Maxilla
  • Zygomatic bone
  • Palatine bone
  • Lacrimal bone
  • Nasal bone
  • Inferior nasal concha
  • Vomer
  • Mandible
  • Hyoid bone
  • Sutures of skull

This article covers the basic anatomy of the human brain. Study each of its main parts: the brainstem and its division (medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain), the cerebellum, and the largest and most complex part of the brain - the cerebral hemispheres. You can learn to identify the cerebral lobes, gyri and sulci present on the cerebral surface, and the functional areas of the cerebral cortex. This section also includes an overview of the vasculature of the brain.

  • Brain (overview)
  • Brainstem
  • Medulla oblongata
  • Pons
  • Rhomboid fossa
  • Rhomboid fossa: main landmarks
  • Rhomboid fossa: superior triangle
  • Rhomboid fossa: inferior triangle
  • Midbrain
  • Cerebellum (1 of 3)
  • Cerebellum (2 of 3)
  • Cerebellum (3 of 3)
  • Cerebrum (Cerebral hemispheres)
  • Cerebral lobes
  • Cerebral gyri and sulci (overview)
  • Frontal lobe: sulci and gyri
  • Temporal lobe: sulci and gyri
  • Parietal lobe: sulci and gyri
  • Occipital lobe: sulci and gyri
  • Sulci and gyri of the medial and inferior cerebral surfaces
  • Insula
  • Insula: sulci and lobules
  • Insula: anterior lobule
  • Insula: posterior lobule
  • Functional areas of the cerebral cortex
  • Arterial blood supply of the brainstem and cerebellum
  • Arterial blood supply of the cerebrum
  • Venous drainage of the brain
Cranial nerves

This chapter gives detailed information about all twelve cranial nerves. Learn the names and exit points of the cranial nerves, find out which cranial nerves are connected with the cavernous sinus, and study the anatomical course, main branches, and topography of each nerve!

  • Cranial nerves (overview)
  • Cranial nerve exits
  • Cranial nerves and cavernous sinus
  • Olfactory nerve (CN I)
  • Optic nerve (CN II)
  • Oculomotor nerve (CN III)
  • Trochlear nerve (CN IV)
  • Abducens nerve (CN VI)
  • Trigeminal nerve (CN V)
  • Ophthalmic nerve (CN V1)
  • Maxillary nerve (CN V2)
  • Mandibular nerve (CN V3)
  • Facial nerve (CN VII)
  • Intermediate portion of the facial nerve
  • Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII)
  • Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
  • Vagus nerve (CN X)
  • Accessory nerve (CN XI)
  • Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Skull topography

Learn about the internal cranial base and the external cranial base along with fossae they contain, their anatomical landmarks, boundaries, and structures forming them. This section also includes information about the anatomy of the orbit, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses.

  • Cranial base
  • Anterior cranial fossa
  • Middle cranial fossa
  • Posterior cranial fossa
  • External cranial base
  • Temporal fossa
  • Infratemporal fossa
  • Pterygopalatine fossa
  • Orbit
  • Nasal cavity
  • Paranasal sinuses (part 1)
  • Paranasal sinuses (part 2)
Skull openings

In this study unit, learn about various openings connecting parts of the skull and determine which structures pass through them.

  • Optical canal
  • Superior orbital fissure
  • Foramen rotundum
  • Foramen ovale
  • Foramen spinosum
  • Foramen lacerum
  • Jugular foramen
  • Hypoglossal canal
  • Carotid canal
  • Foramina cribrosa
  • Supraorbital foramen
  • Infraorbital foramen
  • Nasolacrimal canal

In this study unit, learn which bones form the bony framework of the orbit, what are the extra-ocular muscles and which nerves are found in the orbit. The section also contains information about the lacrimal apparatus.

  • Orbit (overview)
  • Extraocular muscles
  • Nerves of orbit
  • Lacrimal apparatus
Anatomy of the face

This section provides information about facial muscles, as well as the anatomy of the parotid gland. Learn also about the blood supply and innervation of the face, and the motor and sensory nerves providing it.

  • Facial muscles
  • Orbital group of facial muscles
  • Oral group of facial muscles
  • Nasal group of facial muscles
  • Other facial muscles
  • Parotid gland
  • Sensory innervation of face
  • Motor innervation of face
  • Blood supply of face
Facial muscles

This segment provides information about the muscles that provide facial expressions. Learn also the origin site, insertion, functions, innervation, and blood supply of each muscle.

  • Facial muscles (overview)
  • Occipitofrontalis
  • Corrugator supercilii
  • Orbicularis oculi
  • Depressor anguli oris
  • Buccinator
  • Depressor labii inferioris
  • Levator anguli oris
  • Levator labii superioris
  • Mentalis
  • Orbicularis oris
  • Risorius
  • Zygomaticus minor
  • Zygomaticus major
  • Compressor narium minor
  • Dilator naris anterior
  • Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
  • Nasalis
  • Procerus
  • Depressor septi nasi
Muscles of mastication

In this article, get to know the four pairs of primary muscles of mastication. Find out where they each originate, insert, and what kind of function they provide. The chapter also offers more detailed information about the bony attachments of the primary masticatory muscles, and a brief overview of other muscles participating in mastication known as the accessory muscles of mastication.

  • Muscles of mastication (overview)
  • Bony attachments
  • Mandible
  • Primary muscles of mastication
  • Temporal muscle
  • Masseter muscle
  • Medial pterygoid muscle
  • Lateral pterygoid muscle
  • Accessory muscles of mastication
Palatine muscles

In this study unit, we take a close look at the muscles that form the soft palate. Learn in detail about their anatomical location, attachment sites, functions, innervation and blood supply.

  • Palatine muscles (overview)
  • Palatopharyngeus muscle
  • Palatoglossus muscle
  • Uvular muscle
  • Levator veli palatini muscle
  • Tensor veli palatini muscle
Muscles of the neck

This chapter contains information about the superficial neck muscles, as well as the suprahyoid, infrahyoid, scalene, prevertebral and suboccipital muscle groups. Get to know their origin, insertion, function, innervation, and blood supply.

  • Neck muscles
  • Platysma
  • Sternocleidomastoid muscle
  • Scalene muscles
  • Anterior scalene
  • Middle scalene
  • Posterior scalene
  • Digastric muscle
  • Mylohyoid
  • Stylohyoid
  • Geniohyoid
  • Omohyoid
  • Sternohyoid
  • Sternothyroid
  • Thyrohyoid
  • Longus capitis
  • Longus colli
  • Rectus capitis anterior
  • Rectus capitis lateralis
  • Rectus capitis posterior major
  • Rectus capitis posterior minor
  • Obliquus capitis inferior
  • Obliquus capitis superior
Ligaments of the neck

In this study, learn about the ligaments strengthening the cervical spine.

  • Ligaments of the cervical spine
  • Nuchal ligament
  • Yellow ligaments
  • Anterior longitudinal ligament
  • Posterior longitudinal ligament
  • Intertransverse ligaments
  • Cruciate ligament of atlas
  • Alar ligaments
  • Apical ligament of dens
Triangles of the neck

In this section, find out about topographical regions known as triangles of the neck. Learn about the location, structures that form the borders, as well as the contents of each neck triangle.

  • Triangles of the neck (overview)
  • Anterior triangle
  • Carotid triangle
  • Content of carotid triangle
  • Muscular triangle
  • Content of muscular triangle
  • Submandibular triangle
  • Content of submandibular triangle
  • Submental triangle
  • Content of submental triangle
  • Posterior triangle
  • Content of the posterior triangle
Arteries of the head and neck

This section gives an overview of the anatomy of the most important vessels providing arterial blood supply to the head and neck regions.

  • Arteries of the head and neck (overview)
  • Common carotid artery
  • External carotid artery
  • Superficial temporal artery
  • Maxillary artery
  • Mandibular part of the maxillary artery
  • Pterygoid part of the maxillary artery
  • Pterygopalatine part of the maxillary artery
  • Superior thyroid artery
  • Lingual artery
  • Facial artery
  • Ascending pharyngeal artery
  • Occipital artery
  • Posterior auricular artery
  • Internal carotid artery
  • Vertebral artery
  • Thyrocervical trunk
  • Inferior thyroid artery
  • Suprascapular artery
  • Ascending cervical artery
  • Transverse cervical artery
Veins of the head and neck

Learn about the course and topography of the essential veins providing venous drainage from the neck and head regions.

  • Subclavian and brachiocephalic vein
  • Internal jugular vein
  • External jugular vein
  • Anterior jugular vein
  • Vertebral vein
  • Lingual vein
  • Submental vein
  • Angular and facial vein
  • Pterygoid venous plexus
  • Superficial temporal vein
  • Occipital vein
  • Superior and inferior thyroid vein