Head and Neck

Topics
Skull

Parts of the skull, bones and anatomical landmarks, sutures.

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  • Skull (overview)
  • Parts of the skull
  • Bones of the neurocranium
  • Bones of the viscerocranium
  • Sphenoid bone
  • Frontal bone
  • Temporal bone
  • Petrous part of temporal bone
  • Squamous part of temporal bone
  • Mastoid part of temporal bone
  • Tympanic part of temporal bone
  • Ethmoid bone
  • Occipital bone
  • Parietal bone
  • Maxilla
  • Zygomatic bone
  • Palatine bone
  • Lacrimal bone
  • Nasal bone
  • Inferior nasal concha
  • Vomer
  • Mandible
  • Hyoid bone
  • Sutures of skull
Brain

Brainstem, cerebellum, cerebral hemispheres. Lobes, gyri and sulci. Cerebral blood vessels.

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  • Brain (overview)
  • Brainstem
  • Medulla oblongata
  • Pons
  • Rhomboid fossa
  • Rhomboid fossa: main landmarks
  • Rhomboid fossa: superior triangle
  • Rhomboid fossa: inferior triangle
  • Midbrain
  • Cerebellum (1 of 3)
  • Cerebellum (2 of 3)
  • Cerebellum (3 of 3)
  • Cerebrum (Cerebral hemispheres)
  • Cerebral lobes
  • Cerebral gyri and sulci (overview)
  • Frontal lobe: sulci and gyri
  • Temporal lobe: sulci and gyri
  • Parietal lobe: sulci and gyri
  • Occipital lobe: sulci and gyri
  • Sulci and gyri of the medial and inferior cerebral surfaces
  • Insula
  • Insula: sulci and lobules
  • Insula: anterior lobule
  • Insula: posterior lobule
  • Functional areas of the cerebral cortex
  • Arterial blood supply of the brainstem and cerebellum
  • Arterial blood supply of the cerebrum
  • Venous drainage of the brain
Cranial nerves

Twelve cranial nerves, their exit points, anatomical course, branches and topography.

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  • Cranial nerves (overview)
  • Cranial nerve exits
  • Cranial nerves and cavernous sinus
  • Olfactory nerve (CN I)
  • Optic nerve (CN II)
  • Oculomotor nerve (CN III)
  • Trochlear nerve (CN IV)
  • Abducens nerve (CN VI)
  • Trigeminal nerve (CN V)
  • Ophthalmic nerve (CN V1)
  • Maxillary nerve (CN V2)
  • Mandibular nerve (CN V3)
  • Facial nerve (CN VII)
  • Intermediate portion of facial nerve
  • Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII)
  • Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
  • Vagus nerve (CN X)
  • Accessory nerve (CN XI)
  • Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Skull topography

Cranial base; temporal, infratemporal and pterygopalatine fossae; orbit; nasal cavity.

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  • Cranial base
  • Anterior cranial fossa
  • Middle cranial fossa
  • Posterior cranial fossa
  • External cranial base
  • Temporal fossa
  • Infratemporal fossa
  • Pterygopalatine fossa
  • Orbit
  • Nasal cavity
  • Paranasal sinuses (part 1)
  • Paranasal sinuses (part 2)
Skull openings

Location of various openings connecting different parts of the skull.

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  • Optical canal
  • Superior orbital fissure
  • Foramen rotundum
  • Foramen ovale
  • Foramen spinosum
  • Foramen lacerum
  • Jugular foramen
  • Hypoglossal canal
  • Carotid canal
  • Foramina cribrosa
  • Supraorbital foramen
  • Infraorbital foramen
  • Nasolacrimal canal
Orbit

Bony orbit, extra-ocular muscles, nerves of the orbit, lacrimal apparatus.

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  • Orbit (overview)
  • Extraocular muscles
  • Nerves of orbit
  • Lacrimal apparatus
Anatomy of the face

Overview of the facial muscles, parotid gland, innervation and blood supply of the face.

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  • Facial muscles
  • Orbital group of facial muscles
  • Oral group of facial muscles
  • Nasal group of facial muscles
  • Other facial muscles
  • Parotid gland
  • Sensory innervation of face
  • Motor innervation of face
  • Blood supply of face
Facial muscles

Anatomy of the muscles that provide facial expressions.

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  • Facial muscles (overview)
  • Occipitofrontalis
  • Corrugator supercilii
  • Orbicularis oculi
  • Depressor anguli oris
  • Buccinator
  • Depressor labii inferioris
  • Levator anguli oris
  • Levator labii superioris
  • Mentalis
  • Orbicularis oris
  • Risorius
  • Zygomaticus minor
  • Zygomaticus major
  • Compressor narium minor
  • Dilator naris anterior
  • Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
  • Nasalis
  • Procerus
  • Depressor septi nasi
Muscles of mastication

Temporalis, masseter, medial and lateral pterygoids. Accessory masticatory muscles.

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  • Muscles of mastication (overview)
  • Bony attachments
  • Mandible
  • Primary muscles of mastication
  • Temporal muscle
  • Masseter muscle
  • Medial pterygoid muscle
  • Lateral pterygoid muscle
  • Accessory muscles of mastication
Palatine muscles

Anatomy of the muscles that form the soft palate.

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  • Palatine muscles (overview)
  • Palatopharyngeus muscle
  • Palatoglossus muscle
  • Uvular muscle
  • Levator veli palatini muscle
  • Tensor veli palatini muscle
Muscles of the neck

Superficial, suprahyoid, infrahyoid, lateral, prevertebral, suboccipital muscles of the neck.

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  • Neck muscles
  • Platysma
  • Sternocleidomastoid muscle
  • Scalene muscles
  • Anterior scalene
  • Middle scalene
  • Posterior scalene
  • Digastric muscle
  • Mylohyoid
  • Stylohyoid
  • Geniohyoid
  • Omohyoid
  • Sternohyoid
  • Sternothyroid
  • Thyrohyoid
  • Longus capitis
  • Longus colli
  • Rectus capitis anterior
  • Rectus capitis lateralis
  • Rectus capitis posterior major
  • Rectus capitis posterior minor
  • Obliquus capitis inferior
  • Obliquus capitis superior
Ligaments of the neck

Ligaments that are found in the neck and strengthen the cervical spine.

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  • Ligaments of cervical spine
  • Nuchal ligament
  • Yellow ligaments
  • Anterior longitudinal ligament
  • Posterior longitudinal ligament
  • Intertransverse ligaments
  • Cruciate ligament of atlas
  • Alar ligaments
  • Apical ligament of dens
Triangles of the neck

Topographical regions known as triangles of the neck, their borders and contents.

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  • Triangles of the neck (overview)
  • Anterior triangle
  • Carotid triangle
  • Content of carotid triangle
  • Muscular triangle
  • Content of muscular triangle
  • Submandibular triangle
  • Content of submandibular triangle
  • Submental triangle
  • Content of submental triangle
  • Posterior triangle
  • Content of the posterior triangle
Arteries of the head and neck

Most important blood vessels providing arterial blood supply to the head and neck.

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  • Blood supply of head and neck
  • Common carotid artery
  • External carotid artery
  • Superficial temporal artery
  • Maxillary artery
  • Mandibular part of maxillary artery
  • Pterygoid part of maxillary artery
  • Pterygopalatine part of maxillary artery
  • Superior thyroid artery
  • Lingual artery
  • Facial artery
  • Ascending pharyngeal artery
  • Occipital artery
  • Posterior auricular artery
  • Internal carotid artery
  • Vertebral artery
  • Thyrocervical trunk
  • Inferior thyroid artery
  • Suprascapular artery
  • Ascending cervical artery
  • Transverse cervical artery
Veins of the head and neck

Course and topography of major veins providing drainage from the head and neck.

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  • Subclavian and brachiocephalic vein
  • Internal jugular vein
  • External jugular vein
  • Anterior jugular vein
  • Vertebral vein
  • Lingual vein
  • Submental vein
  • Angular and facial vein
  • Pterygoid venous plexus
  • Superficial temporal vein
  • Occipital vein
  • Superior and inferior thyroid vein