Dental Anatomy


This segment provides an overview of the bones forming the upper and lower jaw, including their anatomical landmarks. Learn about the temporomandibular joint, which provides movements of the lower jaw. This article also includes an overview on the muscles of mastication.

  • Jaws (overview)
  • Maxilla
  • Mandible
  • Temporomandibular joint
  • Muscles of mastication
Teeth overview

This study unit contains general information about sets of dentition, types of teeth, their eruption and replacement times, and functions. In this chapter, also learn about surfaces and parts of teeth, as well as their microanatomy.

  • Introduction to teeth
  • Groups of teeth
  • Types of teeth
  • Eruption times
  • Surfaces of teeth
  • Teeth parts
  • Teeth microanatomy
Dental notation systems

Learn about teeth numbering systems used Worldwide. Find out what the differences are between the ISO-3950, Palmer, and Universal Tooth Numbering Systems. This article provides information on how the primary and secondary dentitions are numbered in dentistry according to each dental notation system mentioned above.

  • Dental notation systems (overview)
  • ISO dental notation system
  • ISO system for primary dentition
  • ISO system for permanent dentition
  • Palmer notation system
  • Palmer system for primary dentition
  • Palmer system for permanent dentition
  • Universal Tooth Numbering System
  • Universal system for primary dentition
  • Universal system for permanent dentition
Deciduous teeth

In this study unit, learn about incisors, canines, first and second maxillary and mandibular molar teeth of the primary dentition known collectively as the primary or decidious teeth. This article includes information about the differences between primary and secondary dentition, and about the timing when the primary dentition typically appears.

  • Deciduous teeth (overview)
  • Incisors
  • Canines
  • First maxillary molar tooth
  • Second maxillary molar tooth
  • First mandibular molar tooth
  • Second mandibular molar tooth

This chapter gives detailed information about the maxillary and mandibular incisors of the secondary dentition, their subdivisions and the characteristics of each subdivision. Learn also about the differences between the central and lateral incisors.

  • Incisors (overview)
  • Maxillary incisors
  • Maxillary central incisor
  • Maxillary lateral incisor
  • Mandibular incisors
  • Mandibular central incisor
  • Mandibular lateral incisor

In this section, find out know how many secondary canine teeth each individual typically has, where the canines are located, which numbers these teeth have in the dental notation systems, and what are the characteristics of these teeth. Learn more about their anatomy, as well as about anatomical differences between mandibular and maxillary canines.

  • Canines (overview)
  • Maxillary canine
  • Mandibular canine

In this section, we take a closer look at the anatomy of every secondary premolar tooth, learning about their functions, roots, crowns, cusps, ridges, grooves, and other characteristic features. Get ready to learn in detail about the first and second maxillary and mandibular premolars.

  • Premolars (overview)
  • Maxillary premolars
  • First maxillary premolar (part 1)
  • First maxillary premolar (part 2)
  • Second maxillary premolar (part 1)
  • Second maxillary premolar (part 2)
  • Mandibular premolars
  • First mandibular premolar (part 1)
  • First mandibular premolar (part 2)
  • Second mandibular premolar (part 1)
  • Second mandibular premolar (part 2)

Get to know in detail all twelve secondary molar teeth - the first, second, and third mandibular and maxillary molars. Find out where they are located, what kind of functions they provide, and study their anatomical landmarks. This chapter contains very detailed information about the roots and cusps of the molars, and the characteristics of their surfaces.

  • Molars (overview)
  • Maxillary molars
  • First maxillary molar (part 1)
  • First maxillary molar (part 2)
  • Second maxillary molar (part 1)
  • Second maxillary molar (part 2)
  • Mandibular molars
  • First mandibular molar (part 1)
  • First mandibular molar (part 2)
  • Second mandibular molar (part 1)
  • Second mandibular molar (part 2)
Introduction to dental occlusion

This article overlooks dental occlusion and its related structures - temporomandibular joint and muscles of mastication. Find out what is static and dynamic occlusion, as well as other occlusion concepts. Also, learn about Angle’s classification. This study unit also includes information about the curves of Spee and Wilson, and the sphere of Monson.

  • Dental occlusion (overview)
  • Occlusal relationship
  • Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
  • Joint capsule and ligaments of the TMJ
  • Movements of the TMJ
  • Static occlusion: centric occlusion
  • Occlusion concepts: centric relation
  • Angle's classification
  • Angle's classification (class I)
  • Angle’s classification (class II, division 1)
  • Angle's classification (class II, division 2)
  • Angle's classification (class III)
  • Dynamic occlusion: lateral excursion
  • Dynamic occlusion: canine guidance
  • Dynamic occlussion: protrusion
  • Curve of Spee
  • Curve of Wilson
  • Sphere of Monson