Upper Extremity

Topics
Skeleton of the upper limb

Learn which bones form the skeleton of the shoulder girdle and the free upper extremity, and how they are connected. This chapter also includes detailed information about anatomical landmarks of each bone.

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  • Skeleton of the upper limb (overview)
  • Scapula
  • Clavicle
  • Humerus
  • Ulna
  • Radius
  • Carpal bones
  • Metacarpal bones and phalanges
Ligaments of the upper limb

In this section, learn about the ligaments that strengthen joints of the upper extremity.

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  • Ligaments of the shoulder girdle
  • Coracoacromial ligament
  • Superior transverse scapular ligament
  • Ligaments of the acromioclavicular joint
  • Ligaments of the shoulder joint
  • Shoulder bursas
  • Ligaments of the elbow joint
  • Interosseous membrane of the forearm
  • Ligaments of the wrist joint
  • Ligaments of the midcarpal joint
  • Ligaments of the carpometacarpal joints
  • Ligaments of the intermetacarpal joints
  • Ligaments of the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints
Muscles of the upper limb

This chapter gives an overview of the muscles in the shoulder region, upper arm, forearm, and hand. Learn also in more detail about the rotator cuff and the muscles forming it.

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  • Muscles of the upper limb (overview)
  • Deltoid muscle
  • Supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles
  • Rotator cuff
  • Teres major muscle
  • Biceps brachii muscle
  • Brachialis muscle
  • Coracobrachialis muscle
  • Triceps brachii muscle
  • Anconeus muscle
  • Anterior compartment of the forearm muscles: first layer
  • Anterior compartment of the forearm muscles: second layer
  • Anterior compartment of the forearm muscles: third layer
  • Anterior compartment of the forearm muscles: fourth layer
  • Posterior compartment of the forearm: superficial muscles
  • Posterior compartment of the forearm: deep muscles
  • Lateral compartment of the forearm
  • Hand muscles
  • Medial group of the hand muscles (part 1)
  • Medial group of the hand muscles (part 2)
  • Medial group of the hand muscles (part 3)
  • Lateral group of the hand muscles (part 1)
  • Lateral group of the hand muscles (part 2)
  • Middle group of the hand muscles (part 1)
  • Middle group of the hand muscles (part 2)
Innervation of the upper limb

In this section, learn about the brachial plexus, its branches, parts and divisions, and most essential nerves providing the nerve supply to the upper limb.

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  • Brachial plexus
  • Roots and trunks of brachial plexus
  • Divisions of brachial plexus
  • Cords of brachial plexus
  • Supraclavicular part of brachial plexus
  • Infraclavicular part of brachial plexus
  • Musculocutaneous nerve
  • Medial brachial cutaneous nerve
  • Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve
  • Axillary nerve
  • Median nerve
  • Ulnar nerve
  • Radial nerve
Arteries of the upper limb

This study unit contains an overview of the largest arteries and their branches providing the arterial blood supply of the upper limb.

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  • Subclavian artery
  • Axillary artery
  • Brachial artery
  • Radial artery
  • Ulnar artery
  • Superficial palmar arch
  • Deep palmar arch
  • Princeps pollicis and radialis indicis arteries
  • Common and proper palmar digital arteries
  • Dorsal carpal network
  • Dorsal metacarpal and dorsal digital arteries
Veins of the upper limb

This segment provides information about the most essential superficial and deep veins draining the upper limb.

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  • Veins of upper limb (overview)
  • Superficial veins of upper limb
  • Cephalic vein
  • Basilic vein
  • Deep veins of upper limb