Lower Extremity

Topics
Skeleton of the lower limb

In this section, learn about the bones forming the pelvis and the free lower extremity and their anatomical landmarks.

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  • Skeleton of lower limb (overview)
  • Pelvic skeleton
  • Hip bone
  • Features of hip bone
  • Ilium
  • Ischium
  • Pubic bone
  • Femur
  • Features of femur
  • Tibia
  • Features of tibia
  • Fibula
  • Bones of foot
  • Tarsal bones
  • Talus
  • Calcaneus
  • Navicular bone
  • Cuneiform bones
  • Cuboid bone
  • Metatarsal bones
  • Phalanges (of foot)
Ligaments of the lower limb

In this section, learn about the ligaments strenghtening the joints of the lower limb.

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  • Ligaments of knee joint
  • Bursae of knee joint
  • Ligaments and interosseous membrane of leg
  • Ligaments of ankle joint (part 1)
  • Ligaments of ankle joint (part 2)
  • Ligaments of subtalar joint
  • Ligaments of talocalcaneonavicular joint
  • Ligaments of calcaneocuboid joint
  • Choparts joint
  • Ligaments of cuneonavicular joint
  • Lisfrancs joint (part 1)
  • Lisfrancs joint (part 2)
  • Ligaments of intermetatarsal joints
  • Ligaments of metatatarsophalangeal and interphalangeal joints
Muscles of the lower limb

In this study unit, find out what muscle groups and muscles form the hip region, the thigh, lower leg, and the foot. Learn in detail about their origin and insertion sites, as well as functions.

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  • Muscles of lower limb (overview)
  • Muscles of hip region (part 1)
  • Muscles of hip region (part 2)
  • Muscles of hip region (part 3)
  • Anterior compartment of thigh muscles (part 1)
  • Anterior compartment of thigh muscles (part 2)
  • Posterior compartment of thigh muscles
  • Medial compartment of thigh muscles
  • Anterior compartment of leg muscles
  • Superficial posterior compartment of leg muscles
  • Deep posterior compartment of leg muscles
  • Lateral compartment of leg muscles
  • Muscles of foot
  • Dorsal muscles of foot
  • Medial group of plantar muscles
  • Lateral group of plantar muscles (part 1)
  • Lateral group of plantar muscles (part 2)
  • Lateral group of plantar muscles (part 3)
  • Middle group of plantar muscles (part 1)
  • Middle group of plantar muscles (part 2)
  • Middle group of plantar muscles (part 3)
  • Middle group of plantar muscles (part 4)
Innervation of the lower limb

This chapter looks into the anatomy of the sacral and lumbar plexuses, their branches, and the most important nerves innervating the lower extremity.

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  • Innervation of lower limb
  • Lumbar plexus
  • Femoral nerve and its branches
  • Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve
  • Genitofemoral nerve
  • Obturator nerve
  • Iliohypogastric nerve
  • Ilioinguinal nerve
  • Sacral plexus
  • Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve
  • Sciatic nerve (Ischiadic nerve)
  • Tibial nerve and its branches
  • Common peroneal nerve and its branches
  • Sural nerve
Arteries of the lower limb

This study unit provides an overview of the anatomy of the major arteries providing blood supply to the lower limb, as well as their main branches.

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  • Arteries of the lower limb (overview)
  • Femoral artery
  • Branches of the femoral artery
  • Popliteal artery
  • Branches of the popliteal artery
  • Anterior tibial artery
  • Branches of the anterior tibial artery
  • Posterior tibial artery
  • Branches of the posterior tibial artery
  • Anterior medial, lateral and posterior medial malleolar arteries
  • Lateral and medial tarsal arteries
  • Dorsalis pedis and arcuate arteries
  • Dorsal metatarsal and dorsal digital arteries
  • Lateral and medial plantar arteries
  • Plantar metatarsal and plantar digital arteries
Veins of the lower limb

This segment includes information about the most essential superficial and deep veins providing venous drainage from the lower limb.

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  • Veins of the lower limb (overview)
  • Superficial veins of the lower limb
  • Deep veins of the lower limb
  • Femoral vein
  • Popliteal vein
  • Anterior tibial vein
  • Posterior tibial vein