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The tarsal bones (Latin: ossa tarsi, ossa tarsalia) are a group of seven irregularly shaped bones found in the foot. These bones are located between the bones of the lower leg - tibia and fibula - and the metatarsal bones of the foot.
The tarsal bones are classified as short bones, and all tarsal bones articulate with each other, as well as with the leg bones and metatarsals, forming joints. Each foot is composed of seven tarsal bones that all have their individual names, and they are known as follows:
- Cuboid bone
- Navicular bone
- Medial cuneiform bone
- Intermediate cuneiform bone
- Lateral cuneiform bone
The talus or ankle bone is an irregularly shaped bone that links the foot and the leg through the ankle joint. It has three main parts - body, head and the neck of the talus. The talus forms several joints, therefore, it also contains articular surfaces.
The calcaneus is a large bone forming the heel. It has three articular surfaces on its superior aspect for articulation with the talus and one anterior articular surface that articulates with the cuboid bone.
The cuboid bone is the most laterally located bone lying anterior to the distal aspect of the calcaneus. It appears cuboid-shaped with six surfaces, and three of them are articular surfaces. The cuboid bone articulates with the calcaneus, fourth and fifth metatarsal bones, and the lateral cuneiform bone.
The navicular bone is a boat-shaped bone located on the medial side of the foot anterior to the talus. This bone participates in linking the talus with the cuneiform bones of the foot.
Each foot is composed of three cuneiform bones - medial or first, intermediate or second and the lateral or third cuneiform bone. These bones lie between the proximally located navicular bone and the distally situated first three metatarsal bones. Lateral to the lateral cuneiform bone is the cuboid bone.