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Inferior nasal concha
The inferior nasal concha (also called the inferior turbinate, inferior nasal turbinate, Latin: concha nasi inferior, concha nasalis inferior) is a paired bone in a form of a horizontal curved plate situated in the lateral wall of the nasal cavity.
The inferior nasal concha separates the middle nasal meatus from the inferior nasal meatus. Each inferior nasal concha has two surfaces (medial, lateral), two borders (superior, inferior), and two extremities (anterior, posterior).
The medial surface of the inferior nasal concha is convex, perforated, and longitudinally grooved by blood vessels. The lateral surface is concave, and participates in forming the inferior nasal meatus.
The superior border of the inferior nasal concha is thin and irregular, and it can be divided into three regions: an anterior region that articulates with the conchal crest of the maxilla, a posterior region that articulates with the conchal crest of the palatine bone, and a middle region with three processes - lacrimal, ethmoidal, maxillary. These processes are variable in size and articulate with their respective bones (lacrimal bone, ethmoid bone, maxilla).
The inferior border of the inferior nasal concha, on the other hand, is free, thick and spongiose. Both the anterior and posterior extremities of the inferior nasal concha are narrowed ends of the bone, the posterior being narrower than the anterior.