Peroneal artery

The peroneal artery (also known as fibular artery, Latin: arteria peronea, arteria fibularis) is a branch of the posterior tibial artery. It supplies arterial blood to the posterior and lateral parts or compartments of the lower leg, fibula, as well as the malleolar region.

The peroneal artery arises at the superior part of the cruropopliteal canal, which is a passage between muscles that leads from the popliteal fossa into the leg. Further, the artery passes laterally and descends via the inferior musculoperoneal canal - a canal that branches off the cruropopliteal canal in a lateral direction. Afterwards, the peroneal artery divides into its terminal branches called the calcaneal branches.

On its course, the peroneal artery gives off several side branches: muscular branches to the lateral muscle group of the lower leg; fibular nutritive artery that supplies the fibula; perforating branch and the malleolar lateral branches. The perforating and malleolar lateral branches of the peroneal artery form the lateral malleolar network.