The crown of the mandibular canine usually presents proportionally longer and narrower compared to the maxillary canine. The mesial surface of this tooth is relatively flat, and it is more continuous with the mesial surface of the root, while the lingual surface usually is more concave. Overall, the entire lingual anatomy is not well defined and tends to be smoother.
The cingulum of the mandibular canine is proportionally smaller, and the roots of the mandibular canines have deeper proximal root concavities than the maxillary canines. Because of these concavities, the mandibular canine sometimes can present with two roots, and if it happens, they are known as the buccal and lingual roots.
Also, in contrast to the maxillary canines, there is no notch on the facial outline at the cementoenamel junction of the mandibular canine.
The height of the contour of the mandibular canine is as follows:
- Mesial - incisal third;
- Distal - middle third;
- Labial (facial) - close to the cervical line;
- Lingual - close to the cervical line.
Sometimes the mandibular canine can be confused with the maxillary lateral incisor. It happens if the cusp of the mandibular canine becomes worn and flat. Both teeth can be distinguished by several major features, such as the distobuccal line angle, which is more rounded at the cervical line in the canines. Also, the incisal surface of the incisor in the cross-section appears more rectangular or even ribbon-shaped, while it is diamond-shaped in the canine. And finally, both teeth can be distinguished by the shape of the root.