Maxillary canine

The maxillary canine presents with only one cusp on its incisal surface. The top of the cusp is known as its apex - cusp apex - and it is centered to the long axis of the tooth.

The maxillary canine does not contain an incisal ridge, but it has a cusp ridge composed of the mesial cusp ridge and distal cusp ridge. The mesial cusp ridge is shorter than the distal cusp ridge.

The length difference between both cusp ridges is present because of the difference in the height of the contour on the mesial and distal surfaces. The mesial height of the contour is closer to the cusp.

The labial surface contains three lobes - mesial, central and distal. The central lobe is better developed than the mesial and distal. These lobes are separated by the mesial and distal developmental grooves. Also, the maxillary canine has a very noticeable notch at the cementoenamel junction.

The palatal surface shows such structures as the cingulum, mesial and distal marginal ridges and lingual ridge. The lingual ridge extends from the cusp apex towards the cingulum, and it divides the lingual fossa into two smaller fossae - mesial and distal lingual fossae.

The cingulum is very developed in canine teeth, and it makes these teeth wider buccolingually than mesiodistally.

The cervical line appears curved. However, it is not as prominent as in the incisor teeth. 

The height of the contour of the maxillary canine is as follows:

  • Mesial - incisal third;
  • Distal - middle third;
  • Labial - cervical third;
  • Palatal - cervical third.

The mesial surface of a maxillary canine is relatively flat compared to the distal surface, which is more rounded. The mesial surface tapers from the height of the contour to the neck part of the tooth. 

The incisal surface of the maxillary canine contains rounded mesioincisal and distoincisal angles.

This tooth has the longest root, which makes the maxillary canine the longest tooth