Abductor hallucis

The abductor hallucis (Latin: musculus abductor hallucis) is a fusiform-shaped small muscle located in the plantar side of the foot. It forms the superficial layer of the medial plantar foot muscle group (muscles of the big toe). The abductor hallucis stretches between the calcaneus and proximal phalanx of the hallux. As the name suggests, the abductor hallucis aids in abducting the big toe.

Abductor hallucis
OriginMedial process of calcaneal tuberosity, flexor retinaculum
InsertionBase of proximal phalanx of hallux
ActionAbduction and flexion of hallux, supports medial longitudinal arch of the foot
InnervationMedial plantar nerve (S1 - S2)
Blood supply Medial plantar and first plantar metatarsal arteries

Origin

The abductor hallucis muscle originates from the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity and flexor retinaculum.

Insertion

The abductor hallucis inserts on the base of the proximal phalanx of the hallux (first toe of the foot or big toe).

Action

The abductor hallucis muscle provides the abduction and flexion of the big toe at the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Also, it supports the medial longitudinal arch of the foot.

Innervation

The abductor hallucis is innervated by the medial plantar nerve (S1 - S2) - one of the terminal branches of the tibial nerve.

Blood supply

The abductor hallucis receives arterial blood supply from the medial plantar and first plantar metatarsal arteries.