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Sacral plexus

The sacral plexus (also sacral nerve plexus, Latin: plexus sacralis) is a network of nerves in the sacral region of the human body.

The sacral plexus is formed by part of the ventral branches (anterior rami) of the fourth lumbar (L1) and all ventral branches of the fifth lumbar (L5), first to fifth sacral (S1 - S5) and the coccygeal nerves.

The sacral plexus is situated on the pelvic surface of the sacral bone and on the anterior surface of the piriformis muscle. The branches arising from the sacral plexus can be grouped into short and long branches.

The short branches of the sacral plexus innervate the muscles of the pelvic girdle, perineal muscles and the skin of the external genitals. The short branches are the following:

  • Superior gluteal nerve
  • Inferior gluteal nerve
  • Pudendal nerve
  • Muscular branches

The long branches of the sacral plexus innervate the muscles and skin of the leg. The long branches are:

  • Posterior cutaneous nerve
  • Sciatic nerve