Stomach and abdominal esophagus

The stomach is a hollow muscular organ of the digestive system designed to accumulate and digest food. It lies between the esophagus and duodenum, representing the most dilated part of the gastrointestinal tract. Also, it connects the upper gastrointestinal tract with the lower. 

The stomach is positioned in the upper aspect of the abdomen, lying below the left dome of the diaphragm. It provides mechanical and chemical digestion, a small degree of absorption and secretion of various hormones. 

The stomach appears J-shaped and has two curvatures. It is composed of four parts - cardia, fundus, body, and pyloric part. The stomach wall is formed by four layers (from inside out) - mucosa, submucosa, muscular layer, and serosa.

The stomach receives blood supply mainly from branches of the celiac trunk. The venous drainage is provided by the portal venous system. And finally, it is innervated by the vagus nerve (CN X) and celiac plexus.

Now, identify the following structures:

  • Abdominal esophagus - the final portion of the esophagus that extends between the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm (T10) and the cardiac orifice of the stomach (T11); 
  • Stomach - begins at the distal end of the esophagus; the stomach is relatively fixed at its esophageal and pyloric ends.