Typical thoracic vertebrae (T2-T9)

The typical thoracic vertebrae include the second through nine thoracic vertebrae (T2 - T9). The most characteristic landmarks of the thoracic vertebrae are the costal facets. The vertebral body of a typical thoracic vertebra articulates with two pairs of ribs. Therefore, it has two partial articular surfaces - superior costal demi-facet and inferior costal demi-facet - on each side for articulation with the head of its corresponding rib and the head of the rib below. Moreover, each transverse process articulates with the tubercle of its corresponding rib and has a transverse costal facet.

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