In this chapter, explore the muscles and other anatomical structures forming the thoracic walls, learn about the pleura, lungs, and the diaphragm. Also, get to know the main arteries, veins and nerves of the thoracic walls.

  • Thorax (overview)
  • Thoracic wall
  • Sternum
  • Ribs
  • Typical ribs
  • Atypical ribs
  • Thoracic vertebrae
  • Intercostal space
  • Muscles of the thoracic wall
  • External intercostal muscles
  • Internal intercostal muscles
  • Innermost intercostal muscles
  • Subcostal muscles
  • Transversus thoracis muscle
  • Intercostal nerves
  • Intercostal arteries
  • Venous drainage of the thoracic wall
  • Pleura
  • Regions of parietal pleura
  • Lungs
  • Diaphragm
Thoracic wall muscles

This study unit provides information about muscles filling and supporting the intercostal spaces, muscles extending between the sternum and ribs, and the ones crossing ribs between costal attachments.

  • Thoracic wall muscles (overview)
  • Pectoralis major muscle
  • Pectoralis minor muscle
  • Subclavius muscle
  • Serratus anterior muscle
  • Levatores costarum muscles
  • Intercostal muscles
  • External intercostal muscles
  • Internal intercostal muscles
  • Innermost intercostal muscles
  • Subcostal muscles
  • Transversus thoracis muscle
Superior mediastinum

This chapter includes an overview of the mediastinum, taking a closer look at the boundaries of the superior mediastinum, as well as the organs, vessels, nerves it contains.

  • Mediastinum (overview)
  • Superior mediastinum (overview)
  • Brachiocephalic veins
  • Superior vena cava
  • Aortic arch and its branches
  • Trachea
  • Esophagus
  • Nerves of the superior mediastinum
  • Thoracic duct
Inferior mediastinum

In this section, learn which structures are found within the anterior, middle, and posterior parts of the inferior mediastinum. It includes information about the thoracic aorta, azygos venous system and thoracic duct, vagus nerve, and sympathetic trunk.

  • Inferior mediastinum (overview)
  • Anterior mediastinum
  • Middle mediastinum
  • Posterior mediastinum
  • Thoracic aorta
  • Azygos venous system
  • Azygos vein
  • Tributaries of the azygos vein
  • Thoracic duct in the posterior mediastinum
  • Vagus nerve
  • Sympathetic trunk
External anatomy of the heart

In this study unit, get to know the pericardium and the external anatomical landmarks of the heart. This section also includes an overview of the coronary veins, arteries, and branches.

  • Pericardium
  • Heart
  • Surfaces
  • External sulci
  • Coronary arteries
  • Right coronary artery (RCA)
  • Branches of the right coronary artery (RCA)
  • Left coronary artery (LCA)
  • Branches of the left coronary artery (LCA)
  • Coronary veins
Internal anatomy of the heart

Study in detail the anatomy of the atria and ventricles of the heart, learn about their walls, and anatomical landmarks they contain.

  • Internal anatomy of the heart (overview)
  • Right atrium (RA)
  • Right ventricle (RV)
  • Left atrium (LA)
  • Left ventricle (LV)

In this segment, we look at the anatomy of the trachea, bronchi, and alveolar sacs, providing extra detailed information about the lungs. This section also reviews the innervation, blood supply of the lungs, and the pulmonary circulation.

  • Lungs (overview)
  • Trachea
  • Bronchi
  • Alveolar sacs
  • Gross anatomy of the lungs
  • Lungs
  • Lung lobes
  • Lung fissures
  • Hilum of lungs
  • Nerve supply of the lungs
  • Blood supply of the lungs
  • Pulmonary circulation