Typical vertebrae (part 2)
A number of characteristic projections can be seen on a vertebra.
These projections serve as
- Attachments for muscles and ligaments;
- Levers for the actions of muscles;
- Sites of articulation with adjacent vertebrae.
The roof of the vertebral arch is formed by laminae (singular: lamina), which merge in the midline.
The two projections of a typical vertebrae are:
- Spinous process - projects posteriorly and usually inferiorly from the middle of the vertebral arch;
- Two transverse processes - one on each side, project laterally from the vertebral arch.